Friday, April 21, 2006


Out of Africa hypothesis asserts that modern humans evolved relatively recently in Africa, migrated into Eurasia and replaced all populations which had descended from Homo erectus.

It is difficult to understand the out of Africa hypothesis. There are lot of questions that people have in mind. Like why the Homo erectus migrates out of Africa? Why is mankind split into distinct racial types? Through genetic evidence, lot of questions have been answered. It was shown that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa, who the moved to the other parts of the world displacing earlier forms such as Neanderthal.

Beside the African eve hypothesis there is the multi-regional hypothesis which recently disagree with the African eve hypothesis. The multi regional hypothesis suggests that, modern humans evolved from outdated forms (such as Neanderthal and Homo erectus) con-concurrently in different regions of the world. This hypothesis is supported by physical evidence, such as the continuation of morphological characteristics between ancient and modern humans.

Researchers therefore reason that all living humans descend from Africans, some of whom migrated out of Africa to populate the rest of the world. If the mitochondrial analysis is correct, then because mitochondrial Eve represents the root of the mitochondrial family tree, she must have predated the exodus and lived in Africa.

Based on mitochondrial evidence, many researchers support the Out-of-Africa model. One finding not subject to interpretation is that the greatest diversity of mitochondrial DNA sequences exists among Africans. This diversity would not have accumulated, researchers argue, if humans had not been living longer in Africa than anywhere else. Analysis of Y chromosome sequences have corroborated the evidence that mitochondrial DNA has provided for an African origin for hominids.

Are humans originated in Africa and is there enough evidence? I think that based on the majority of anatomical, archaeological and genetic evidence we can conclude that the best explanation for the beginning of modern humans is the out of Africa that postulates a single, African origin for Homo sapiens.


Since 1960s until early 1970s the attempts were made by the Russians and the Americans to land on the moon. Because of the radiation belt the Apollo 1 to Apollo 10 never reached the moon, they were all destroyed and the astronauts were killed. It was until 20 july1969 when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin are said to be the first to have landed the moon. The NASA claims were supported by the evidence of 841 pounds of moon rock they brought home to the earth. It is believed that not only these two went to the moon but also other astronauts did go there until the period of 1972. Among those who went to the moon 9 are still alive.

On the 15 February 2001 the fox television aired a program called conspiracy theory: did we land on the moon? According to the show NASA fake the film of moon landing. Since the programme aired there are lots of debates going around concerning whether they did or did not land on the moon.

According to my point of understanding, I am 94% believe that the whole thing is a hoax and they never landed the space craft on the moon. It is said that there is a radiation belt that surrounded the moon. The temperature of this radiation belt is about 250- 500 degree Celsius and this is too much for any object to pass through this belt therefore they should be destroyed. Though NASA claimed to have made a well planned space craft to withstand this temperature still it does not make sense because during the 1960s, the technology was not that much well advanced.

Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin are said to be the first to land on the moon and this is supported by the fact that they were seen walking on the moon, they erected the American flag and they brought back moon rock home to earth. I totally disagree that this men landed the moon because by the time they were erecting the flag, it was seen bending and ripping of which is highly impossible in situation where there is no air. The way they (astronauts) were moving is questionable. It is said that at the moon there is no force of gravity therefore they were not suppose to jump up and down because if there was no force of gravity they should have just hang over the moon ground.

The astronauts were heard communicating with the controllers on the ground just 9 hours after they leave the earth and they claimed to have reached the moon. But according to what the scientist said it is estimated that the time to reach the moon is 72 hours so 9 hours is not even a halfway to the moon.

The other fact is that those astronauts who said to have landed the moon refused to be interviewed. Those who were interviewed some how they were not co-operating and were rude these prove that they are hiding something. I think they should be proud, stand-up tall and tell us about their experience. So by running away from the people who need to interview them prove that there is something wrong or they are running away from the truth. Those who were interviewed some how they made different statements which raise concern that they really faked to have gone to the moon.

The NASA failed to show the photos that confirm that the astronauts really did go to the moon. This is because their photos failed to show the stars. The black sky should be full of stars and non are visible in their photographs. Therefore these proved that they photos were not originally taken from the moon surface.

I therefore conclude that we are living in the world of competition where every country wants to be on top in terms of technology, wealth and everything. That is why some people will have to fake things if they cannot make the original or the real things. I believe this is also another hoax.

Thursday, April 13, 2006


The real explanation of how the universe started and works is still not yet clear. However the scientists are trying to come up with different theories to give the explanation of how the universe functions. Different scientists from different institutions are trying to explain these functionality relationships by trying to come up with different laws that govern the universe. These forces include the force of gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear and weak forces.

The scientist including the likes of Albert Estein, Isaac Newton, and Niels Bohr tried to explain the world of everything. Albert Estein (the father of gravity) said that everything in the universe is made of the tiny strings and they form the components of nature.

At the age of 26, Isaac Newton, came up with different laws to explain the universe. These include the force of gravity law where two processes occurs that is the pull and the push force. An example was given using an apple falling from a tree. The two forces play part to pull and push. He further said that nothing can go as faster as lightning. This led to Maxwell to come up with the theory of Electromagnetic force, which is the combination of electricity and magnet. Maxwell further continued by saying when the light is moving, it creates dots and dash. Therefore four simple equations, which is gravity; electromagnetism and string were combined to form one equation.

After these forces still the scientist battle to come out with the real explanation that govern the universe. These is seen when another scientist called Niel Bohr come up with the suggestion that the universe behave in a strange way which is predictable.

In 1930s, it was also discovered that gravity and electromagnetism are not the only forces which describes how the world works, says Nima Arkani from Harvard University. The other forces were also discovered that include the nuclear force which consists of protons and neutrons and the weak force. The other theory was that of quantum mechanics, suggesting that Universe is formed as a result of the big bang some 14billion years ago. As a result the Universe gets small.

Therefore this issue of how the universe work is still unknown though different scientists are trying to come with different theories. At the moment there is no clear explanation pertaining the way which the universe functions.

Sunday, April 09, 2006



I attended the SAEON graduate student network Workshop held on 29 March 2006, which was held at Leriba centurion (Pretoria). It was a nice work shop, aiming at networking the students from different institution on the field of science.

Aims of the SAEON Graduates Students network
To build student network
To make awareness of the role of scientists
To make awareness to graduates student with regard to SAEON

D.r Bob Scholes is a member of SAEON technical panel, (CSIR fellow) he also leads the ecosystem process and dynamics research at CSIR Pretoria. The presentation done by Dr Bob Scholes was well presented. The message for the presentation was dedicated to the scientist, to prepare and plan on their research. He also indicated that the scientist needs to gather enough information to be available and that information need to be accessible by the community.

The important of the community is seen as crucial because they are the one’s funding these researches. Therefore they need to be considered.

Three pillars of landscapes by D.r. Scholes .B



Social Needs




Social Needs

Research Assessment

He also said that “when I collect data, I record the place I collected the data and the people who help me to collect such data in case others people want to use my data” (Scholes, 2006).

He indicated that doing a research is not all about benefiting yourself financially and gaining recognition. Research is done to address the real issues to benefit the community for a long term. What the entire scientist plan, must be the thing that benefit the present and the future.

I have learned that doing a scientific research, the issue must not be about the financial benefit, but have to consider the economic, social and natural aspects.

Friday, April 07, 2006


I am lufuno a NISL EI student and Richard knight is my coordinator. I am looking forward to be communicating with all of you guys.

Feel free to contact me.